Worried you might have genital herpes? Genital herpes affects about one out of eight people in the United States, according to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It’s a fairly common condition. In fact, it’s one of the world’s most common STDs.
Genital herpes can be asymptomatic, meaning you may not have any visual symptoms even if you’re infected. However, there are many genital herpes symptoms that make diagnosis much easier.
Below, we’ve listed the genital herpes symptoms and signs you should be aware of, ranging from physical symptoms to the effects a herpes infection can have on your mood and energy level. If you’re worried that you might be infected, the list below can serve as a useful resource before seeing a doctor.
Most people become aware that they might have genital herpes after a first attack, which can occur during the primary infection stage.
This usually happens one to two weeks after you’re exposed to the virus through sexual activity with an infected person. This stage is known as an “incubation period,” during which the virus is actively multiplying throughout your cells.
As the herpes infection spreads, it can cause an outbreak. The first outbreak of herpes usually results in a range of physical effects, from itchy painful sores to flu-like symptoms. We’ve covered these genital herpes symptoms in more detail below.
Our guide to Kissing and Cold Sores goes over the eight stages of a herpes outbreak.
Most people become aware that they might have herpes during the first herpes outbreak. This period is when the physical signs of herpes first become visible, causing alarm for people that may be infected.
The most obvious symptoms of a first herpes outbreak include tingling around the genitals, as well as the development of blisters on and around the penis. Over the course of several days, these blisters can develop into itchy, painful, uncomfortable sores called herpes lesions.
The location of genital herpes lesions can vary from person to person. In both men and women, herpes lesions can appear in and around the genital area, anal area, thighs and buttocks.
Genital herpes can also be transmitted to other parts of the body — such as the mouth, lips and tongue — although this is uncommon and usually requires direct skin-to-skin contact between the open herpes lesions and the uninfected area.
Nevertheless, it's important to remember that oral herpes isn't always triggered by an HSV-1 outbreak.
Some people experience pain while urinating during an initial herpes outbreak. Women may also experience an inflamed cervix and unusual changes in their vaginal discharge.
Initial herpes outbreaks can also include flu-like symptoms. Many people with genital herpes notice muscle aches, fever, chills, headaches and swollen glands around the pelvic area and neck. It’s also very common to feel fatigued and worn out during the first herpes outbreak.
Normally, the first herpes outbreak lasts longer than subsequent outbreaks. Most people with genital herpes report the initial outbreak taking several weeks to heal completely, with the symptoms worsening early in the outbreak before slowly healing over several weeks.
During the healing process of a herpes outbreak, the skin lesions eventually develop into scabs and disappear from the body. There is rarely any scarring from herpes lesions — typically, once the outbreak has finished, your genital area will return to the way it normally looks.
Herpes can remain inactive in the body between outbreaks. In fact, many people infected with genital herpes never experience any outbreaks even though they have the virus, causing them to be unaware that they’re infected.
After an initial outbreak, genital herpes can remain dormant in your body for several months at a time. This means you might not notice any negative effects from herpes for months (or, in some cases, a year or longer) after your initial outbreak.
Most of the time, people with genital HSV-1 experience one to two outbreaks per year, with HSV-2 causing more frequent outbreaks (on average, four to five times per year).
The good news is that recurrent herpes outbreaks usually aren’t as bad as the first herpes outbreak. Recurrent outbreaks are usually shorter and less severe than the first outbreak. It’s also easier to treat recurrent outbreaks, since you’re more likely to be prepared.
Recurrent outbreaks tend to produce the same genital herpes symptoms as initial outbreaks — tingling skin on and around the genitals, followed by the development or herpes lesions. Just like in an initial outbreak, these lesions heal naturally over the course of days or weeks.
Herpes outbreak frequency varies greatly person to person, but our guide to what to expect from your herpes outbreaks is a good place to start.
Since there’s no cure for herpes, the physical effects of the virus can come back from time to time on their own, often with little warning.
However, herpes can also be triggered by certain life events or behaviors. Currently, experts believe that herpes outbreaks can be triggered by factors such as fatigue and stress, illness, trauma, menstruation, trauma and sexual intercourse.
However, other, things — like sun exposure and cold weather — are thought to trigger the virus.
Over time, most people experience fewer outbreaks that are less mild.
Generally, people with strong immune systems experience herpes outbreaks less frequently. This makes it important to keep your lifestyle, diet and habits healthy to support immune function if you have herpes.
While herpes can’t be cured, it can be controlled using medication. The most common herpes medication, valacyclovir, can reduce the effects of a herpes outbreak and help your body heal herpes lesions quickly and effectively.
Valacyclovir is most effective when it’s used in the early stages of a herpes outbreak. For the best results and fastest healing, most healthcare providers recommend taking valacyclovir as soon as you notice the warning signs of a herpes outbreak developing (such as itchy, irritated skin).
Our Valacyclovir 101 guide goes into more detail about how you can use valacyclovir to treat herpes outbreaks when they occur.